D'Allemagne, Henry Rene' , Decorative Antique Ironwork, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1968 (Roman keys, p.68)

Anon. Guide to the Antiquities of Roman Britain, 2nd ed., published by the Trustees of the British Museum, 1958 (Seal box and drawings of padlock & chest lock mechanisms)

Anon. Ver den Schlussel nicht ehrt . . . Deutches Schloss-und Beschlagemuseum, Velbert, 1990, 95 pages, hardbound, glossy paper

Anstee, J.W.,  The Examination, Interpretation and Replication of an Iron Lock from Lullingstone Roman Villa, Kent  The Antiquaries Journal, v. 81, p. 395, 2001 (Excellent detailed description of a flat Roman barrel/chain lock)

Bailey, Gordon, Detector Finds 5, Greenlight Publishing, 2002 (iron and bronze keys and an odd bolt)

Bedoyere, Guy de la, The Finds of Roman Britain, B.T. Batsford, London, 1989 (2 keys, a key handle and a bolt)

Biasiotti, Adalberto, Chiave Serrature e Luchetti Pompeiani, distributed on CD, 1998

Birley, Andrew Vindolanda, Research Reports, New Series, Volume IV, The Small Finds, Fascicule II. Security: The Keys and Locks, 1997)

Bishop, M.C. Finds from Roman Aldborough. Oxbow Monograph #65, 1996 (seal boxes, bolts, keys)

Boetzkes, Manfred, Sammlung Pankofer, Schlussel und Schloser aus drei Jahrtausenden, 1983, (48 page booklet showing an exhibit of the Pankofer collection, 1983, 1.5 pages of text on Roman locks)

Boetzkes,Manfred et al., Handwerk zur Industrie, Neuerwerbungen Seit 1981, (39 page pamphlet, exhibition catalog of the Deutschen Schloss-und Beschlagemuseums. Velbert)

Borali, Roberto, Le Antiche Chiavi, Tecnica. Arte, Simbologia, Burgo Editore -Bergamo, 1993 (4 pages of text and illustrations of Roman keys)

Brunner, Der Schlussel im Wandel der Zeit (Reconstruction of a Roman bolt-lock from Augst,with the correspohdhg lift-and-slide key)

Bury, S., Rings, 1985

Connolly, Peter Pompeii, (1979)

Cuming, H.S., The History of Keys, Journal of the British Archeological Association, vol. 12, pp. 117-129, June 1856

Cunliffe, Barry, Fishbourne, a Roman Palace and Its Garden, Johns Hopkins Press, 1971 (mention of keys & seal boxes)

Curle, James, A Roman Frontier Post and its People, The Fort of Newstead in the Parish of Melrose, Glasgow, 1911 (online ref. http://www.curlesnewstead.org.uk/index.htm)  (casket fittings, keys, tablets, styli, lock parts, seal boxes, seals)

Declerc, Raf, Lem, Jacques and Vanloocke, Danny, Open of Dicht, Geschiedenis van Sleutel en Slot, Litto Security Locks, 1998  (many Roman keys and several locks)

Declerc, Raf, Keys and Locks in the Collection of Raf Declerc, 2004 (Many Roman, Byzantine and Medieval Locks & Keys, text in Dutch, French and English)

Eras, V.J.M. Locks and Keys Throughout the Ages, 1957 (A Brief treatmentof Roman keys)

Ewald, Jurg et al, ed. Jahresperichte aus Augst und Kaiseraugst 11, 1990 (description of 12 Roman iron barrel locks found at Augst, and a reconstruction)

Gasper, Dorottya 1986 Romische Kastchen aus Pannonien. Antaeus. Mitteilungen des Archaologischen Instituts der Ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 15, Budapest: Archaologisches Instutut der UAW. people.bu.edu/mcg/Bibliography.html (Roman chests)

Gibbons, Gail Locks & Keys 1980

Green, Miranda, Aspects of Roman Life: Roman Technology and Crafts., Longman Group Ltd., 1979 (includes brief section on mining and metalworking)

Hayes, John W. Greek, Roman and Related Metalware in the Royal Ontario Museum, 1984 (Chest hasps)

Hopkins, Albert A., The Lure of the Lock, the John M. Mossman Collection, NY, 1928. ix, 246pp, 190 illus. 21 1/2 cm. Reprint 1954. (Brief treatment of ancient locks & keys)

Hoepfner, Wolfram, Ein Kombinationsschloss aus dem Kerameikos, Archaologischer Anzeiger, Band 85, No. 2: 210-213, 1970 Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin (Detailed description of a Roman chest combination lock found in a grave in Athens. [in German])

Jacobi, Louis, Das Romerkastell Saalburg Bei Homburg Vor Der Hohe, 1897  ((in German) many examples of Roman door and chest locks, bolts, keys, fittings)

Jones, William, Finger-Ring Lore, Historical, Legendary, Anecdotal, London 1877

Lise, Giorgio, Chiavi E Serrature (Locks and Keys), BE-MA Editrice, Milano, 1987.

Malloy, Alex G., Artifacts of Ancient Civilizations, 1st ed., 1997

Malone, Sara M., Lost-wax Casting in the Classical World (Archaeological evidence, including the Berlin Foundry Cup from the 6th century BCE, depicting Greek foundry scenes)

Mandel, Gabriele, Clefs, 2001 (Roman & Byzantine locks & keys)

Manning, W.H.  An Iron Lever Lock from Caerleon, Monmouthshire, The Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, v. 22, Part 4, May 1968  (Description and deduction of the mechanism of a Roman barrel/chain lock)

Manning, W.H. Catalogue of the Romano-British Iron Tools, Fittings and Weapons in the British Museum, London 1985 (Locks & Keys and their classification)

Manning, W.H. Catalogue of the Romano-British Ironwork in the Museum of Antiquities, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1976 (5 iron Keys)

McWhirr, Alan Roman Crafts and Industries, Shire Publications, 1982 (Padlock diagram and page of iron keys)

Mills, Nigel Roman Artifacts Found in Britain Greenlight Publishing, 1995 (3 pages devoted toRoman keys)

Mills, Nigel Celtic and Roman Artifacts, Greenlight Publishing, 2000 (mostly duplication of mateial from Roman Artifacts)

Monk, Eric, Keys, Their History and Collection, Second edition, 1999 (very brief treatment of Roman keys)

Murawski, Paul G. Benet's Artefacts of England & the United Kingdom, 2000 (Seal boxes and ring keys)

Pankofer, Heinrich, Sammlung Pankofer , 1983 (Some Roman and Byzantine padlocks)

Pitt-Rivers, Primitive Locks and Keys, 1883 (very useful, great amount of material on Roman locks and keys)

Quennell, Marjorie and C.H.B., Everyday Life in Roman and Anglo-Saxon times, 1959 (1.5 pages of text and drawings of Roman door and chest locks)

Raffaelli, Umberto et al Oltre la Porta, 1996, 335 pages, softcover (locks and keys from prehistory to the 19th century. Very extensive discussion of Roman locks & keys, which unfortunately I have not yet translated).

Read, Brian, Metal Artefacts of Antiquity, Portcullis Publishing, 2001 (keys & seal boxes)

Riha, Emilie, Kastchen, Truhen, Tischen - Mobelteilen aus Augusta Raurica, vorschungen 31 (A great amount of material on the chest locks found at Augusta Raurica, and many reconstructions of Roman chests with locks. Perhaps the definitive work on this subject)

Romischer Alltag in Bayern, 125 Jahre Bayerische Handelsbank in Munchen, 1869-1994, Festschrift, Geschichten aus der Bayerischen Handelsbank, Munchen 1994

Schmoeckel, Ingo, Vorhangeschlosser, Sammlung Ingo Schmoeckel. 2000

Singer, et al., A History of Technology, vol.2, The Mediterranean Civilizations and the Middle Ages, c. 700 B.C to A.D. 1500, Clarendon Press, 1956

Smith, Charles Roach, Illustrations from Roman London, 1859 (Plate 37, Roman keys)

Smith, William, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875 (Page 978: definition and image of a pyxis)

Soren, David and James, Jamie, Kourion, the Search for a Lost Roman City, Anchor Press, 1988 (Excavation of a City destroyed by earthquake in 365 CE. Dating a Roman ring key)

Strong, Donald. and Brown, David, Roman Crafts., 1976 (Extensive discussion of Roman bronze casting)

Tanavoli, Parviz & Wertime, John T. ,  Locks from Iran, Washington, 1976

Thompson, Hugh, Iron Age and Roman Slave-Shackles, Archeol. J., 150 (1993), 57-168

Vaudour, Catherine, Catalogue du Musee le Sec des Tournelles, Fascicule II, Clefs et Serrures (Roman keys)

Vikan, Gary and Nesbitt, John, Security in Byantium, Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Collection. Publications, 1980 (Keys, padlocks, chest locks)

Ward, John, The Roman Era in Britain, Methuen & Co., London, 1911 (Discussion and illustration of many artifacts, including locks, keys, trinket boxes. See also web site listed below: penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer etc.)

Zara, Louis, Locks and Keys, Walker & Co, New York, 1969 (Good discussion of Roman keys)


Note: the following references are guides to information that has been available at various times in the last few years. Web sites come and go, and experience shows that one should assume that simply addressing these sites as given will fail. Better to regard them as hints to information that exists somewhere! If all else fails, contact me, since in many cases I do have paper copies of text and digital copies of images.



http://www.2002.stoke.gov.uk/museums/pmag/archaeology/romans/reading.htm (writing tablets, stylus, seal boxes)  (try searching on Stoke tablets)

http://www.2002.stoke.gov.uk/museums/romans/xrhouse.htm (Roman houses, security, diagram of pin tumbler lock)   (try searching on Stoke Roman houses)

http://www.admin.cotswold..gov.uk/media/Roman/B2.jpg (Large iron box padlock)

http://www.akg-london.co.uk/ind/indust/text/144547.htm (Image of Roman lock and key in the Louvre)

http://www.archeologie.kennisnet.nl/schipdiv/ (Recovery of submerged Roman ship from the Rhine, Netherlands, with cabinet, including lock and key)

http://www.archeologie-krefeld.de/projekte/schluessel.htm  (Reconstruction of rotary and slide key locks from finds at Krefeld)

http://www.archeologie-krefeld.de//Bilder/Schluessel/romischetuerweb.jpg (Image of Roman door from sarcophagus)

http://www.baselland.ch/docs/kultur/augustaraurica/expo/highlights_e.htm (Image of figural lion door key)

http://www.baselland.ch/docs/kultur/augustaraurica/pub/bibliogr/1_bibliogr.htm (Roman padlocks from Augusta Raurica)

http://www.bnrr.co.uk/environment/en_ch_art1.htm (Image of hasp bent at 90 degree angle to fasten into top of case)

http://www.britishlocks.com/n1.html (Drawings of 5 interesting Roman keys)

http://www.cf.ac.uk/learn/archeol/bibs/roman_non_ceramic_finds.html (Guide to archaeological reports on Roman non-ceramic finds)

http://www.chubblocks.co.uk/historyoflocks.html (History of locks)

http://www.classicsunveiled.com (Roman Houses, arca, outer doors with bolts & bars)

http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romel/html/intdecor.html (Student summary of topics from Roman Life, Mary Johnston, Scott, Foresman, Glenview,IL., 1957)

http://www.cotswold.gov.uk/museum/AllRoman.asp (Corinium Museum collections database, categories: lift key, rotary key, padlock, lock, chain, seal box, slide key)

http://www.curlesnewstead.org.uk/index.htm (Entitled A Roman Frontier Post and its People, by James Curle, 1911.  Plate 78 shows keys and lock parts found)

http://www.finds.org.uk/news/letters4.php (Photo of Roman face lock, North Lincolnshire)

http://www.findsdatabase.org.uk (Entry point to large number of artifacts excavated in Britain, including many refs to Roman locks & keys)

http://www.florilegium.org/files.HOME/keys-locks-bib.html (illustrations of Greek and Roman door keys and locks)

http://www.forumromanum.org/life/johnston_6.html (Johnston's Private Life of the Romans, chapter 6., The House and Furniture)

http://www.geshichte.hu-berlin.de/beriche/ufg/heft40_4_en.html (Lock types found in central Germany)

http://www.geshichte.uni-osnabrueck.de/projekt/8/8a.html (Image of combination lock knobs and a double bolt with key inserted)

http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/objects/o35577.html (Gallo Roman bronze arca or offering box, complete with ring key)

http://www.ina.tamu.edu/sl-misc.htm (Images of the four padlocks found in the Serce Limani 11th century Byzantine shipwreck excavation)

http://www.intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue2/dungworth/toc.html (Small finds database, Internet Archaeology 9, Hunter-Mann Finds catalogue. p.19, locks & keys)

http://www.intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue9/findcat.html (Internet Archaeology 9, Iron Age and Roman Copper Alloys from Northern Britain)

http://www.intas.be/catalog/961-0054.htm (Locks & Keys from Georgia)


http://www.kcn.ru/history/h.bulgu.html  (Simple mention, no sources or images)

http://www.ku.edu.history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Great Bri . . . .) (Seal boxes).

http://www.ku.edu.history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMI .  (Roman doors and locks)

http://www.legiiavg.org.uk/civilian/jewellery.html (Roman jewellery)

http://www.mnir.ro/bronzuri/resumate/ilies.html (Bronze closing mechanisms in Roman Dacia)

http://muzarp.poznan/muzeum/muz_pol/Arena/kowalewko/kowalewko_main_eng.html (artifacts from Roman graves in Poland, caskets and contents. Best to just search on kowalewko.)

http://www.natmus.dk/cons/x/metal/ml.htm (conservation of iron objects)

http://www.pastperfect.org (Lock bolts, locks, keys at Thrislington)

http://www.penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazeteer/Places/Europe/Great _Britain/_periods/Roman/_texts/WARREB/12*.html  (Etruscan locks & keys)

http://www.rheagallery.com/rheafiles/c10085_chestlock.html (Lovely bronze chest lock group with figural hasps and decorative rings in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Also Etruscan locks & keys))

http://www.romansinsussex.co.uk/level2/themes/question_result.as?page_id=117 (Image of Roman iron door hinge)

http://www.roman-empire.net (The Roman House, arca)

http://www.romanremains.freeserve.co/.uk/r0300023.jpg (image of 7 Roman keys)

http://www.russianbrideguide.com/about_russia/history/ancient.shtml (lock found in a barrow, made in the shape of a butterfly, perhaps from Iran)

http://www.standfast-security.co.uk/Content/history_of_locks.htm (History of Locks)

http://www.stefan-ramseier.ch/roemisch/english/roemisch/buecher/kaestchen.htm Riha-Emilie; 2001 Schwabe & Co. AG Basel Kastchen, Truhen, Tische - Mobeltgeile aus Augusta Raurica (German: Title means "Boxes, chests, tables - pieces of furniture, parts from Augusta Raurica")

http://stores.jmlock.com (The History of Locks)

http://www.ukans.edu (William Thayer, William Smith Dictionary of Greek & Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. (arca, capsa, casarii, capsula, scrinium)


http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~ljw/history.htm (History of locks)

http://www.vindolanda.com/html/latestnews1.html (2003 excavations, including writing tablets and an enamelled seal box with contents)

http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images_/index6.html (Images of capsa, scrinium, strongbox)

http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/house_sources.html (Roman chests found at Pompeii)

http://www.warwickshire.gov.uk/Web/corporate/pages.nsf/Links/41447991809c8bb7802. . . . (Roman seal box, found at Birch Abbey)






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